A Classic Essay by Lu Ta-lu (1971)
Translated by Patricia N. H. Leong, Sifu of the Hawaii Academy
A long time ago during the reigns of Huo (1851) and Tung (1862) in the Ching Dynasty, Master Wu
Chuan Yau was employed by the royal household. He was from the Ta-hsing district of the province of
Hopei. At that time many Manchu princes studied a martial art, namely Tai Chi Chuan, in order to
improve their health. They were taught by Master Master Yang Lu-chan and his son, Master Yang Pan-
hou. Because they only taught Manchu princes or guards of the royal household, everyone thought that
this was an aristocratic art. Further, because the body and arms in Tai Chi Chuan moved slowly, people
thought it to be beneficial for health, but not equally useful as a martial art. People in general held this
view and Master Wu Chuan Yau and others in the martial arts worlds were no exception.
A martial arts expert named Hsu Hsien-liu was not convinced. He said that one should not apply the
term chuan or fist (which implies a fighting art) to Tai Chi Chuan. Upon hearing theses words, Master
Yang Pan-hou replied that Tai Chi Chuan was indeed the Great Ultimate Fist which could be used for
healing as well as for fighting, and proceeded to lift Hsu Hsien-liu with his gesturing hand. As a result,
Hsu Hsien-liu bowed to Master Yang Pan-hou’s advanced kung-fu. From then on people began to regard
Tai Chi Chuan with special respect.
Master Yang Pan-hou’s Tai Chi Chuan was separated into two divisions Big Circles and Small Circles.
The Big Circles were used to promote health. This is what he taught to the Manchu princes in the capital.
The Small Circles, however, were used for fighting applications, and this he would not teach frivolously.
Master Wu Chuan Yau naturally studied only the Big Circles with Master Yang Pan-hou. However,
studying the Big Circles with Master Yang Pan-hou was not easy, and he had to undergo great
When Master Yang Pan-hou taught people, he held to the principle of "no pain, no gain". Every time he
would Push Hands with his disciples, they would fall so often that they injured their arms and legs. Many
Manchu princes and royal guards suffered so much that they stopped studying. At that time, among the
royal guards, there were only three who had not quit, and Master Wu Chuan Yau was one of them.
However, Master Wu Chuan Yau suffered so much from Master Yang Pan-hou’s brutal treatment that his
left leg had become slightly lame.
What the Son didnt teach, the Father taught.
Master Wu Chuan Yau studied in this arduous way till he mastered the skills of the Big Circles; but he
still knew nothing about the Small Circles. One day Master Yang Pan-hou wanted to leave Beijing and
return to this old home in the district of Huang-ping. For this reason, his father took over his duties
teaching the Manchu princes and the three hardy, but barely surviving royal guards. Master Yang Lu-
chan noticed that Master Wu Chuan Yau’s left leg was slightly lame and asked him the reason. Master
Wu Chuan Yau answered truthfully. However, he stressed that although this was the case, he still wished
to continue training.
Impressed by these words, Master Master Yang Lu-chan felt that this kind of young man who was willing
to undergo such hardships, after having been so knocked down, was rare. In addition, he could tell from
this that Master Yang Pan-hou had only taught Master Wu Chuan Yau the Big Circles skills and had not
taught any of the Small Circles skills to this long-suffering lad-in-training. Otherwise, he would not have
become crippled, as a result of falling back on his leg so often during Push Hands, because he was
unable to push Master Yang Pan-hou back.
After watching him carefully for several days, he felt that the lad was worth teaching. Then he threw out
entirely the Big Circles that Master Wu Chuan Yau had previously learned from Master Yang Pan-hou
and started from the beginning with the Small Circles method. This continued for three years, and during
that time Master Wu Chuan Yau was learning everything without even realizing it.
When the Teacher left, his Disciple followed
After three years had passed, Master Yang Pan-hou returned to the capital from Huang-ping district.
Naturally Master Yang Lu-chan surrendered his teaching position to his son. Master Yang Pan-hou
continued to teach the Big Circles, just as before, using his principles of "no pain, no gain". While
Pushing Hands with Master Wu Chuan Yau, several times he attempted to discharge energy to topple
Master Wu Chuan Yau, but Master Wu Chuan Yau always neutralized it. Master Yang Pan-hou
immediately realized that his father had taught the Small Circles to Master Wu Chuan Yau. He brought
Pushing Hands to a halt and went to Master Yang Lu-chan and said simply, "Henceforth, the Yang
Family’s Tai Chi Chuan would no longer be transmitted from father to son."
Master Yang Lu-chan immediately admonished him, replying, "The Ching Dynasty Manchu princes are
foreigners. If you hadn’t taught them, then you could say that. Master Wu Chuan Yau is of the same
tribe. His dedication and tenacity are rare. Why can you not teach him the same skill?" At this Master
Yang Pang-hou was at a loss for words and had no comeback. From then on he joined him in teaching
Master Wu Chuan Yau the Small Circles skill.
After a good many years passed like this, Master Yang Lu-chan wanted to leave the capital and return to
Huang-ping district. Master Yang Lu-chan had ridden for several days, when the driver noticed that
someone was following the carriage. Feeling this was strange, he mentioned it to Master Yang Lu-chan
who raised the green oil-cloth shade behind the carriage and saw at once that the person following the
carriage was not a stranger, but was Master Wu Chuan Yau. Summoning him to the front of the carriage,
he asked him why he was following and was reluctant to part? Master Wu Chuan Yau spoke up without
any reserve and said that he wanted to return home with Master Yang Lu-chan and continue training with
him. Master Yang Lu-chan disclosed to him that after searching his heart, he clearly saw that he had
taught him as much as he could and had held nothing back. So there was really no need for him to study
further, and nor was there any need for him to remain in the capital and continue studying with Master
Yang Pan-hou. He could even teach others. After saying all this, he continued on his journey. Master Wu
Chuan Yau watched the carriage pass into the distance, and with his heart full of sadness, he returned.
After Master Wu Chuan Yau’s return to the capital, he told Master Yang Pan-hou what Master Yang Lu-
chan had said. Master Yang Pan-hou acknowledged that he could teach disciples, as he had studied the
complete Yang family system of Tai Chi Chuan, both the Big Circles and Small Circles, for ten years and
had advanced to the highest level. Obtaining Master Yang Pan-hou’s permission, Master Wu Chuan Yau
immediately resigned his military position and set about establishing a training hall to teach Tai Chi
He wanted to demonstrate that what he would teach and Yang Family Tai Chi Chuan would differ in the
following respects: First, he would only teach common people in his training hall, not Manchu princes.
Second, his style would not have Big Circle and Small Circle Divisions, but emphasize only Small Circle
Tai Chi Chuan. From this, he created a style which he called Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan.
After he established his training hall and could clearly differentiate himself from Master Yang Pan-hou,
he broke off from the Yang standard. Master Yang Pan-hou continued to teach only Manchu princes and
royal guards and only taught them Big Circle Yang Family Tai Chi Chuan. Master Wu Chuan Yau, on the
contrary did not teach Manchu princes and royal guards, but only commoners; and he only taught Small
Circle Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan. Because of this, in a short time, his disciples became more numerous
than those of Master Yang Pan-hou in the royal palace.
After a time, just after the 1911 revolution sixty years ago that toppled the Ching Dynasty, because
Master Wu Chuan Yau was getting old, he left Beijing and moved his family back to his ancestral home
in Ta-hsing district in the province of Hopei, resolutely disbanding his classes. His son was Master Wu
Chien Chuan. Taught from an early age in Beijing by his father, Master Wu Chuan Yau, he had an
excellent foundation. After returning to Ta-hsing, Master Wu Chuan Yau devoted all his attention to
teaching him. The method he used was the same as Master Yang Pan-hous "no pain, no gain."
During this period, Master Wu Chien Chuan counted on suffering. Often when father and son Pushed
Hands, Master Wu Chuan Yau would use his former vigor to throw his son to higher and higher heights,
before crashing down. This method of "no pain, no gain" was the way Master Wu Chuan Yau taught
Master Wu Chien Chuan all his secrets.
After disbanding, Chien Chuan establishes his name
After a time, Master Wu Chuan Yau, in turn, delivered the same speech to Master Wu Chien Chuan that
Master Yang Lu-chan had said to him. He informed him that he had taught Master Wu Chien Chuan all
of the secret methods of Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan. There was no need for him to teach him further, and
he could now watch him receive disciples and teach. Master Wu Chien Chuan respectfully accepted his
destiny. However, Master Wu Chuan Yau did not actually see Master Wu Chien Chuan receive disciples,
as shortly thereafter he died.
After Master Wu Chuan Yau’s death, Master Wu Chien Chuan prepared to carry out his fathers words to
teach Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan to disciples. At that time there was a group in Beijing headed by Hsu Yu-
sheng who went to the Wu home in Ta-hsing to invite Master Wu Chien Chuan to return to Beijing to
continue his fathers wishes to teach Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan in Beijing. Because of this Master Wu
Chien Chuan demonstrated his talent in Beijing for the first time, so that Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan was
Smashed furniture and broken slabs Hsu Yu-sheng was adept at learning the Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan from
Master Wu Chuan Yau. After Master Wu Chuan Yau returned to his home, he thought a lot about going there.
Then he heard that Master Wu Chuan Yau had died and that the mantle of the father had passed to Master
Wu Chien Chuan. For this reason, he and a group of people offered to sponsor Master Wu Chien Chuan’s return
to Beijing to continue teaching Master Wu Chuan Yau’s disciples.
They left Beijing for Ta-hsing in Hopei province and sought the Wu Family home to meet with Master Wu
Chien Chuan. What they saw inside the Wu home astonished all of them alike. Chairs and tables,
without exception were broken, and none of the furniture was intact. In addition, the slabs of stairs were
smashed to bits. They at first thought that some untoward circumstance had befallen the Wu home.
Later, they heard Master Wu Chien Chuan explain that this was the result of he and his fathers daily
martial arts practice. In the course of their workouts, they broke chairs and tables, furniture and slabs.
They had "skin of bronze" and "bones of iron".
After hearing this everyone began to smile, as they recalled how formidable the Wu Family Tai Chi
Chuan truly was. Master Wu Chien Chuan would not be ashamed to carry forward Wu Family Tai Chi
Chuan. The travellers thereupon explained the reason for their journey. As Master Wu Chien Chuan in
fact wanted to carry out his fathers wishes and continue teaching people and further develop Wu Family
Tai Chi Chuan, he accepted the invitation of Hsu Yu-sheng and his travelling companions and went to
Master Wu Chien Chuan goes South, Master Wu Kung Yi remains in the Capital
At this time, although there were no longer Manchu princes to respect him as disciples, Master Yang
Pan-hou continued to remain in the capital. At first he taugt at the Institute for Traditional Training in the
National Arts. Later he formed the Yang Family Tai Chi Chuan Association to teach students. After
Master Wu Chien Chuan arrived in Beijing, he established the Chien Chuan Tai Chi Chuan Association,
using his name to distinguish it from Master Yang Pan-hou’s Yang Family Tai Chi Chuan Association. He
spent twenty years in Beijing and during those twenty years, he, of course taught at the Chien Chuan Tai
Chi Chuan Association. However, because there were so many disciples, he had to bring in the third
generation of the Wu Family to assist him.
The third generation consisted of his eldest son, Master Wu Kung Yi, and his second son, Master Wu
Kung Cho. From childhood they had studied with Master Wu Chien Chuan. With the family teachings as
the source, father tiger would not sire pups, but would naturally sire cubs. These third generation
treasures, Master Wu Kung Yi and Master Wu Kung Cho, became Master Wu Chien Chuan’s assistant
teachers. Their achievements, especially those of the elder son, Master Wu Kung Yi, were equal to their
Why is it that Master Wu Chien Chuan remained for twenty years in Beijing after forming a martial arts
association without moving and going elsewhere to expand it? This is the reason. Because Master Yang
Pan-hou’s father was his teacher, Chien Chuan always respected him; and when the Yang Family Tai
Chi Chuan was organized into a base Tai Chi Chuan Association, he did not wish to expand to other
After twenty years, the Chung-Yang Ching-Wu Sports Association wanted to form a Tai Chi Chuan
group. They proceeded to discuss this with Yang Cheng Fu. Because Yang Cheng Fu was devoted to
the Yang Family Tai Chi Chuan Association and did not have any spare time, he strongly recommended
Master Wu Chien Chuan to Chen Kung-che. Chen Kung-che then went to Beijing to invite Master Wu
Chien Chuan to go south and take charge. Master Wu Chien Chuan was told of Yang Cheng Fus
recommendation and agreed. When he went south, he turned over the teaching of the Beijing
Association to his sons, Master Wu Kung Yi and Master Wu Kung Cho. From then on Wu Family Tai Chi
Chuan was taught in the south. During this period, because Master Wu Chien Chuan brought Wu Family
Tai Chi Chuan south and Master Wu Kung Yi remained in the capital to teach Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan,
all three generations had pupils and disciples throughout the country.
Grandfather and Grandson, Fathers and Sons, engage in different pursuits
When Master Wu Chien Chuan went to Shanghai, he took with him his beloved grandson, Master Wu Tai
Kwei, who was the eldest son of Master Wu Kung Yi. He was very young, barely ten years old, but had
been taught Tai Chi Chuan by his grandfather from childhood. Because Master Wu Chien Chuan wanted
to teach him more, when Master Wu Chien Chuan took his art south, he took his grandson along with
him. They lived in the Ching-Wu Sports Association, and Master Wu Chien Chuan started teaching Tai
Chi Chuan in Shanghai. Then the Tai Chi Chuan participants at the Ching-Wu Association began to grow
After a time the Chung-yang National Martial Arts Academy of Nanking was formed. Chang Chih-chiang
was headmaster and Li Ching-lin and Chu Min-Yi were assistants. When Chu Ming-Yi was in Beijing, he
had studied Tai Chi Chuan at the Chien Chuan Association. Since he knew that Master Wu Chien Chuan
was at the Shanghai Ching-Wu Association, he thereupon issued an invitation from the National Martial
Arts Academy, inviting him to direct Tai Chi Chuan teaching in Nanking. After initiating national martial
arts contest, he invited Master Wu Chien Chuan to adjudicate.
The Old and Young leave and Family scatters
The war of resistance against Japan started and Beijing fell. Master Wu Kung Yi closed the Tai Chi
Chuan Association and fled with his wife and family to Chang-sha; and Master Wu Chien Chuan, who
was in Nanking at that time, brought Master Tai Kwei to Hong Kong. After he arrived in Hong Kong, he
formed the Chien Chuan Tai Chi Chuan Association at Lockhart Road, teaching disciples and waiting for
the family members in Chang Sha to arrive in Hong Kong.
After Chang-sha engaged in the war, Master Wu Kung Yi and Master Wu Kung Cho left Chang-sha and
went to Hong Kong with their wives and children, and the family was once again reunited. At that time,
the Chien Chuan Tai Chi Chuan Association had many disciples. Master Wu Chien Chuan was head of
the school, and Master Wu Kung Yi and Master Wu Kung Cho assisted him. After a period of time,
Master Wu Kung Cho left Hong Kong to develop a Tai Chi Chuan Association in Guangzhou and Macau
And after another period of time, when Master Wu Chien Chuan was seventy year old and Hong Kong
had just been captured, Master Wu Chien Chuan left Hong Kong for Shanghai and unexpectedly died
there. At this time Master Wu Kung Yi and Master Wu Tai Kwei fled to Master Wu Tai Kwei and taught
pupils at the Association there.
The Martial Arts Association disbanded until the Japanese surrender
Hong Kong was under siege for three years and eight months. Thereupon, the Japanese surrendered
and Hong Kong was delivered from oppression. Master Wu Kung Yi immediately returned to Hong Kong
and re-established the Chien-Chuan Tai Chi Chuan Association at Lockhart Road. Although the teachers
and students had demobilized, the overseas disciples soon grew more numerous than before. After
demobilization, because many of the high-ranking military officials were former disciples, they invited
Master Wu Kung Yi to go to Canton to teach.
From that time on Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan flourished in Hong Kong. However, who could have
imagined that after two years, the Chinese mainland would be liberated, and Master Wu Kung Yi and the
rest of the family in Hong Kong would lose contact with Master Wu Kung Cho who remained in China.
Year after year, the numbers of people studying Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan in Hong Kong grew, and Wu
Family Tai Chi Chuan became extremely popular, even more that it had been formerly in Beijing,
Shanghai, Nanking and Hunan.
The Big Fight in Macau
Master Wu Kung Yi’s name had become well known. The fight was provoked by Chen Ke-fu in Hong
Kong. Chen Ke-fu was a White Crane person of the hard-style school, which was a different school of
fighting than Master Wu Kung Yi. It is said that he "encroached on Master Wu Kung Yi’s territory and
provoked the fight". At that time there were people who argued that Master Wu Kung Yi did not have to
contest with a person of a different school and of a different generation; but even so, he had no choice
but to fight, so Master Wu Tai Kwei went to the arena to handle it. Master Wu Kung Yi could have
mentioned this to Chen Ke-fu, but since Chen Ke-fu had singled out his name, he was forced to fight
with him. Finally, Master Wu Kung Yi assented.
This was in 1953; but it was not until January 17, 1954, that an exhibition context was arranged.
However, since even cricket contests were against the law in Hong Kong, they moved the site of the
contest to Master Wu Tai Kwei to the Hsin-hua Park, where they had set up a platform. Under the
auspices of the famous Ho Hsien of Macau, funds from the sales of tickets were to benefit charities such
as the Ching-hu Hospital
Because this fight had been brewing for so long, the people in Hong Kong and Macau were greatly
excited. The people from Hong Kong who went to Macau to see the contest filled all the hotels. The
tickets had been sold out very early on. At that time, the head of the group that judged the contest was
Ho Hsiend. The rest all were famous persons in the martial arts work, such as Tung Ying-chieh, Liu Fa-
meng, Li Chieng-chin and Ta Yin-kuang. They had established a six-round fight, each round lasting five
minutes. In the opinion of most, since Master Wu Kung Yi was believed to be close to sixty years of age
and Chen Ke-fu around thirty and fighting in the fierce Shaolin style, they were afraid that Master Wu
Kung Yi would take a beating. Who, however would take a beating in the end? Everyone eagerly awaited
The fight began and chen Ke-fu braced himself for the challenge. First selecting a position for attack, he
launched into "Leopard Links Hands" of the Lohan set, concentrating closely on Master Wu Kung Yi’s
entering strike, forcing him toward the ropes. However, in his great haste, he gave Master Wu Kung Yi an
opening to shift, block, and strike, hitting chen on the nose, causing it to bleed, staining Chen’s white
outfit. At this the head judge Ho Hsien got worried and immediately sounded the bell ending the round.
During the rest period Ho Hsien went over to see if Chen Ke-fus bleeding had subsided, and then asked
him if he still wished to continue the contest. Chen Ke-fu pointed out that nose bleeds were a common
occurrence in Western boxing and that it really was not important. So after a five minute rest, the second
As soon as the second round started, Chen Ke-fu immediately put into effect an attack strategy, walking
in a coiling step making a half-circle and striking out at Master Wu Kung Yi’s kidney region with the
"Wrapping Up with Silk" of the White Crane style. However, Master Wu Kung Yi, who was not really
injured, turned around, and feinting with his left hand, struck out with his right in the "Fist Under Elbow
Punch" strike to Chen Ke-fus chest region. Following a struggle, he struck Chen Ke-fu solid blows to his
wrist and arms, immediately causing Chen Ke-fu to lose the ability to fight with his right arm, so he
raised his leg toward Master Wu Kung Yi to topple him. Master Wu Kung Yi felt that Chen’s raising his
leg violated the rules, and repaying him in kind, use "Left Separate Leg", toward Chen in retaliation.
Seeing this situation and realizing that the two people were already fired up, several of the judges feared
that if they continued there would be a mishap. Thus the head judge sounded the bell, stopping the fight,
although they had only completed one minute of the round. The judges immediately conferred, and then
declared that the contest had been settled. Obeying the judges orders, Wu and Chen immediately
ceased the fight, shook hands and left the ring.
In view of its intent as a fundraiser, a clear victor was not necessary. Thus, after returning to Hong Kong,
both camps held celebration banquets. When the Tai Chi people celebrated that evening, they went to
invite Chen Ke-fu and his people to attend; and when the White Crane people celebrated that evening,
they went to invite Master Wu Kung Yi to attend. They both declared that the celebration was not a
victory celebration, but was to celebrate the success of the fund-raising effort for the Ching-hu Hospital.
After 1961 business daily expanded. Thereupon Master Wu Kung Yi bought the penthouse of Bowen
Mansion on Jordan Road to be the permanent association’s office and moved the headquarters to
Kowloon. He changed the Lockhart Road premises into a branch association, letting his daughter Master
Wu Yan Hsia and her husband Master Kwok Hsiao Jong be the head teachers there. He and Master Wu
Tai Chi travelled to the Singapore branch association, and he and Master Wu Tai Kwei took turns
teaching in the two branch associations. Later, he resided more in Hong Kong, because the fourth
generation, Master Wu Tai Kwei, Master Wu Tai Chi and Master Wu Tai Sin were able to comfortably
handle the teaching responsibilities of their respective territories.
The headmaster of the White Crane School, Wu Chao-chung, who was Chen Ke-fus master, died the
year before last (1969); and Master Wu Kung Yi, the third generation in the direct lineage of the Wu
Family Tai Chi Chuan masters passed away December 5th of last year (1970). The martial arts world will
mourn the loss of these two distinguished masters. The fourth generation of the Wu Family Tai Chi
Chuan Master Wu Tai Kwei, Master Wu Tai Chi, Master Wu Yan Hsia and Master Wu Tai Sin now
continue to carry on Master Wu Kung Yi’s efforts to spread and popularize Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan.
Master Yang Cheng-fu and Master Wu Chien Chuan first went to Beijing and then on to Shanghai
promoting the art of Tai Chi Chuan. The two of them participated on the same stage in a martial arts
exhibition for charity. Both men were dressed in long gowns, poised and elegant, first joining hands, then
Pushing Hands in place, then mutually exchanging energy, one asking, the other answering, rising and
falling, attacking and defending, advancing and retreating, the two men seemed like the spirited dragon
and the tiger playing in never-ending harmony, so that it would seem that you could watch them forever.
In Tai Chi Pushing Hands, when great martial artists meet, just as one cannot recite an essay well in one
breath, the better the exhibition, the more refined; the more refined, the better the exhibition. In this
exhibition, from beginning to end, the two men were light-spirited, and each attack and defense was
done with a light heart, each showing his respectful intent. During the thunderous applause that followed,
they smiled at each other, happy and basking in the glow of this moment that they would remember
Lu Ta-lus classic essay on Master Wu Kung Yi and the Wu-Chen fight was first published in 1971, just
after Master Wu Kung Yi passed away. It was reprinted in 1986, following the release of Fei-ho or Flying
Crane, a modern day martial arts film made for the overseas Chinese audience, in order to explain the
significance of a documentary film clip of the famous Wu-Chen fight, which was featured in this film.
Chen Ke-fu who was then around sixty, starred in this film.
Since 1971, much has happened to the Wu family. After the Cultural Revolution, Master Wu Kung Cho,
the younger son of Master Wu Chien Chuan, was finally allowed to leave China and rejoin the Wu family
in Hong Kong. In Hong Kong he was busy revising and updating his famous classic on Wu Family Tai
Chi Chuan originally published in 1935. A revised edition was reissued in 1980, and again in 1982 with
photographs of both Master Wu Kung Yi and Master Wu Chien Chuan. Master Wu Kung Cho passed
away in Hong Kong in 1983. Master Wu Ying Hua, the only daughter of Master Wu Chien Chuan, who
with her husband Master Ma Yueh Liang had been directing the Shanghai Chien Chuan Tai Chi Chuan
Association, passed away in Shanghai in June of this year (1996). Master Wu Tai Kwei, the eldest son of
Master Wu Kung Yi, who was instrumental in helping spread Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan to other parts of
Asia, including Singapore, Macau, the Philippines and Japan, passed away in 1970, and Master Wu Tai
Chi, Kung Yis youngest son, took over from him. Master Wu Tai Chi opened branch associations in
Malaysia and in 1975 went to Canada in response to invitations from numerous overseas Chinese
groups to establish a Chien chuan Tai Chi Chuan Branch Association in Canada. In 1976, Master Wu Tai
Chi returned to Hing Kong and turned over the branch association that he had established to Master Wu
Tai Kweis eldest son, Sifu Wu Kwong Yu. Sifu Wu Kwong Yu or Eddie Wu, as he is known in the West, is
the fifth generation master in the direct lineage and currently directs the Wu Family Tai Chi Chuan in
North America and Europe. The North American headquarters are situated in Toronto, Canada. Master
Wu Tai Chi passed away in 1993, and presently Master Wu Kung Yis daughter, Master Wu Yan Hsia,
together with her husband Master Kwok Hsiao Jong direct the Hong Kong Chien Chuan Tai Chi Chuan
Associations headquarters at Jordon Road; while Master Wu Tai Sin, Master Wu Kung Chos younger
son, directs the Hong Kong branch association which has moved to Moreton Terrace
On October 14 and 15, 1995, the First International Wu Style Tai Chi Chuan Convention was held at the
Metro Convention Centre in Toronto. More than one hundred and seventy Wu stylists from all over the
world, including ten delegates from Hawaii, participated in this momentous event which featured six
generations of the Wu Family. An international Wu Style Tai Chi Chuan Federation was formed to
facilitate the sharing and exchange of information and expertise, including future books and videos of the